Download Universal Audio Synthesizer Control with Normalizing Flows
The ubiquity of sound synthesizers have reshaped music production and even entirely define new music genres. However, the increasing complexity and number of parameters in modern synthesizers make them harder to master. Hence, the development of methods allowing to easily create and explore with synthesizers is a crucial need. Here, we introduce a radically novel formulation of audio synthesizer control by formalizing it as finding an organized continuous latent space of audio that represents the capabilities of a synthesizer and map this space to the space of synthesis parameter. By using this formulation, we show that we can address simultaneously automatic parameter inference, macro-control learning and audio-based preset exploration within a single model. To solve this new formulation, we rely on Variational Auto-Encoders (VAE) and Normalizing Flows (NF) to organize and map the respective auditory and parameter spaces. We introduce a new type of NF named regression flows that allow to perform an invertible mapping between separate latent spaces, while steering the organization of some of the latent dimensions. We evaluate our proposal against a large set of baseline models and show its superiority in both parameter inference and audio reconstruction. We also show that the model disentangles the major factors of audio variations as latent dimensions, that can be directly used as macro-parameters. Finally, we discuss the use of our model in several creative applications and introduce real-time implementations in Ableton Live
Download Cross-Modal Variational Inference for Bijective Signal-Symbol Translation
Extraction of symbolic information from signals is an active field of research enabling numerous applications especially in the Musical Information Retrieval domain. This complex task, that is also related to other topics such as pitch extraction or instrument recognition, is a demanding subject that gave birth to numerous approaches, mostly based on advanced signal processing-based algorithms. However, these techniques are often non-generic, allowing the extraction of definite physical properties of the signal (pitch, octave), but not allowing arbitrary vocabularies or more general annotations. On top of that, these techniques are one-sided, meaning that they can extract symbolic data from an audio signal, but cannot perform the reverse process and make symbol-to-signal generation. In this paper, we propose an bijective approach for signal/symbol translation by turning this problem into a density estimation task over signal and symbolic domains, considered both as related random variables. We estimate this joint distribution with two different variational auto-encoders, one for each domain, whose inner representations are forced to match with an additive constraint, allowing both models to learn and generate separately while allowing signal-to-symbol and symbol-to-signal inference. In this article, we test our models on pitch, octave and dynamics symbols, which comprise a fundamental step towards music transcription and label-constrained audio generation. In addition to its versatility, this system is rather light during training and generation while allowing several interesting creative uses that we outline at the end of the article.