Download Passive Admittance Matrix Modeling for Guitar Synthesis
In physics-based sound synthesis, it is generally possible to incorporate a mechanical or acoustical immittance (admittance or impedance) in the form of a digital filter. Examples include modeling of the termination of a string or a tube. However, when digital filters are fitted to measured immittance data, care has to be taken that the resulting filter corresponds to a passive mechanical or acoustical system, otherwise the stability of the instrument model is at risk. In previous work, we have presented a simple method for designing and realizing inherently passive scalar admittances, by composing the admittance as a linear combination of positive real (PR) functions with nonnegative weights. In this paper the method is extended to multidimensional admittances (admittance matrices). The admittance matrix is synthesized as a sum of PR scalar transfer functions (second-order filters) multiplied by positive semidefinite matrices. For wave-based modeling, such as digital waveguides (DWGs) or wave digital filters (WDFs), the admittance matrix is converted to a reflectance filter. The filter structure is retained during conversion, resulting in a numerically robust implementation. As an example, a dual-polarization guitar string model based on the DWG approach is connected to the reflectance model parameterized from guitar bridge admittance measurements.
Download Structurally Passive Scattering Element for Modelling Guitar Pluck Action
In this paper we propose new models for the plucking interaction of the player with the string for use with digital waveguide simulation of guitar. Unlike the previously presented models, the new models are based on structurally passive scattering junctions, which have the main advantage of being properly scaled for use in fixed-point waveguide implementations and of guaranteeing stability independently of the plucking excitation. In a first model we start from the Cuzzucoli-Lombardo equations , within the Evangelista-Eckerholm  propagation formulation, in order to derive the passive scattering junction by means of bilinear transformation. In a second model we start from equations properly modeling the finger compliance by means of a spring. In a third model we formalize the interaction in terms of driving impedances. The model is also extended using nonlinear (feathering) compliance models.
Download String Instrument Body Modeling Using FIR Filter Design and Autoregressive Parameter Estimation
In this paper, a method is presented for modeling string instrument bodies. The crucial point of the method is a two-step filtering technique which combines advantages of both finite impulse response (FIR) filter design and autoregressive (AR) modeling. The frequency sampling method for FIR filter design enables modeling of specific resonance constellations within the magnitude spectrum, whereas a subsequent all-pole modeling step reduces the filter order. In addition, frequency warping is applied in order to further decrease the model complexity. The proposed method allows for highly-detailed modifications of individual resonances without affecting other resonances. An example for modifying a virtual violin body is presented as well as the implementation on a real-time platform which allows for experiments on perceived violin sound and musician-instrument interaction.
Download A Source-Filter Model for Quasi-Harmonic Instruments
In this paper we propose a new method for a generalized model representing the time-varying spectral characteristics of quasi harmonic instruments. This approach comprises a linear sourcefilter model, a parameter estimation method and a model evaluation based on the prototype’s variance. The source-filter-model is composed of an excitation source generating sinusoidal parameter trajectories and a modeling resonance filter, whereas basic-splines (B-Splines) are used to model continuous trajectories. To estimate the model parameters we apply a gradient decent method to a training database and the prototype’s variance is being estimated on a test database. Such a model could later be used as a priori knowledge for polyphonic instrument recognition, polyphonic transcription and source separation algorithms as well as for resynthesis.
Download Real-Time Simulation of a Guitar Power Amplifier
This paper deals with the real time simulation of a class A single ended guitar power amplifier. Power tubes and triode models are compared, based on Norman Koren’s work. Beam tetrodes and pentodes characteristics are discussed, and displayed as Norman Koren’s model parameters. A simple output transformer model is considered, with its parameters calculated from datasheets specifications. Then, the circuit is modeled by a nonlinear differential algebraic system, with extended state-space representations. Standard numerical schemes yield efficient and stable simulations of the stage, and are implemented as VST plug-ins.
Download Real-Time Guitar Tube Amplifier Simulation using an Approximation of Differential Equations
Digital simulation of guitar tube amplifiers is still an opened topic. The efficient implementation of several parts of the guitar amplifier is presented in this paper. This implementation is based on the pre-computation of the solution of the nonlinear differential system and further approximation of the solution. It reduces the computational complexity while the accuracy is comparable with the numerical solution. The method is used for simulation of different parts of the guitar amplifier, namely a triode preamp stage, a phase splitter and a push-pull amplifier. Finally, the results and comparison with other methods are discussed.
Download Discretization of Parametric Analog Circuits for Real-Time Simulations
The real-time simulation of analog circuits by digital systems becomes problematic when parametric components like potentiometers are involved. In this case the coefficients defining the digital system will change and have to be adapted. One common solution is to recalculate the coefficients in real-time, a possibly computationally expensive operation. With a view to the simulation using state-space representations, two parametric subcircuits found in typical guitar amplifiers are analyzed, namely the tone stack, a linear passive network used as simple equalizer and a distorting preamplifier, limiting the signal amplitude with LEDs. Solutions using trapezoidal rule discretization are presented and discussed. It is shown, that the computational costs in case of recalculation of the coefficients are reduced compared to the related DK-method, due to minimized matrix formulations. The simulation results are compared to reference data and show good match.
Download Practical Modeling of Bucket-Brigade Device Circuits
This paper discusses the sonic characteristics of the bucket-brigade device (BBD) and associated circuitry. BBDs are integrated circuits which produce a time-delayed version of an input signal. In order to reduce aliasing, distortion, and noise, BBDs are typically accompanied by low-pass filters and compander circuitry. Through circuit analysis and measurements, each component of the BBD system can be accurately modeled.
Download On Minimizing the Look-Up Table Size in Quasi-Bandlimited Classical Waveform Oscillators
In quasi-bandlimited classical waveform oscillators, the aliasing distortion present in a trivially sampled waveform can be reduced in the digital domain by applying a tabulated correction function. This paper presents an approach that applies the correction function in the differentiated domain by synthesizing a bandlimited impulse train (BLIT) that is integrated to obtain the desired bandlimited waveform. The ideal correction function of the BLIT method is infinitely long and in practice needs to be windowed. In order to obtain a good alias-reduction performance, long tables are typically required. It is shown that when a short look-up table is used, a windowed ideal correction function does not provide the best performance in terms of minimizing aliasing audibility. Instead, audibly improved alias-reduction performance can be obtained using a look-up table that has a parametric control over the low-order generations of aliasing. Some practical parametric look-up table designs are discussed in this paper, and their use and alias-reduction performance are exemplified. The look-up table designs discussed in this paper providing the best alias-reduction performance are parametric window functions and least-squares optimized multiband FIR filter designs.