Download Real-Time Implementation of an Elasto-Plastic Friction Model using Finite-Difference Schemes
The simulation of a bowed string is challenging due to the strongly non-linear relationship between the bow and the string. This relationship can be described through a model of friction. Several friction models in the literature have been proposed, from simple velocity dependent to more accurate ones. Similarly, a highly accurate technique to simulate a stiff string is the use of finitedifference time-domain (FDTD) methods. As these models are generally computationally heavy, implementation in real-time is challenging. This paper presents a real-time implementation of the combination of a complex friction model, namely the elastoplastic friction model, and a stiff string simulated using FDTD methods. We show that it is possible to keep the CPU usage of a single bowed string below 6 percent. For real-time control of the bowed string, the Sensel Morph is used.
Download Flexible Real-Time Reverberation Synthesis With Accurate Parameter Control
Reverberation is one of the most important effects used in audio production. Although nowadays numerous real-time implementations of artificial reverberation algorithms are available, many of them depend on a database of recorded or pre-synthesized room impulse responses, which are convolved with the input signal. Implementations that use an algorithmic approach are more flexible but do not let the users have full control over the produced sound, allowing only a few selected parameters to be altered. The realtime implementation of an artificial reverberation synthesizer presented in this study introduces an audio plugin based on a feedback delay network (FDN), which lets the user have full and detailed insight into the produced reverb. It allows for control of reverberation time in ten octave bands, simultaneously allowing adjusting the feedback matrix type and delay-line lengths. The proposed plugin explores various FDN setups, showing that the lowest useful order for high-quality sound is 16, and that in the case of a Householder matrix the implementation strongly affects the resulting reverberation. Experimenting with delay lengths and distribution demonstrates that choosing too wide or too narrow a length range is disadvantageous to the synthesized sound quality. The study also discusses CPU usage for different FDN orders and plugin states.
Download Dynamic Grids for Finite-Difference Schemes in Musical Instrument Simulations
For physical modelling sound synthesis, many techniques are available; time-stepping methods (e.g., finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods) have an advantage of flexibility and generality in terms of the type of systems they can model. These methods do, however, lack the capability of easily handling smooth parameter changes while retaining optimal simulation quality and stability, something other techniques are better suited for. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to smoothly add and remove grid points from a FDTD simulation under sub-audio rate parameter variations. This allows for dynamic parameter changes in physical models of musical instruments. An instrument such as the trombone can now be modelled using FDTD methods, as well as physically impossible instruments where parameters such as e.g. material density or its geometry can be made time-varying. Results show that the method does not produce (visible) artifacts and stability analysis is ongoing.
Download A Physical Model of the Trombone Using Dynamic Grids for Finite-Difference Schemes
In this paper, a complete simulation of a trombone using finitedifference time-domain (FDTD) methods is proposed. In particular, we propose the use of a novel method to dynamically vary the number of grid points associated to the FDTD method, to simulate the fact that the physical dimension of the trombone’s resonator dynamically varies over time. We describe the different elements of the model and present the results of a real-time simulation.
Download Real-Time Implementation of a Friction Drum Inspired Instrument Using Finite Difference Schemes
Physical modelling sound synthesis is a powerful method for constructing virtual instruments aiming to mimic the sound of realworld counterparts, while allowing for the possibility of engaging with these instruments in ways which may be impossible in person. Such a case is explored in this paper: particularly the simulation of a friction drum inspired instrument. It is an instrument played by causing the membrane of a drum head to vibrate via friction. This involves rubbing the membrane via a stick or a cord attached to its center, with the induced vibrations being transferred to the air inside a sound box. This paper describes the development of a real-time audio application which models such an instrument as a bowed membrane connected to an acoustic tube. This is done by means of a numerical simulation using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods in which the excitation, whose position is free to change in real-time, is modelled by a highly non-linear elasto-plastic friction model. Additionally, the virtual instrument allows for dynamically modifying physical parameters of the model, thereby allowing the user to generate new and interesting sounds that go beyond a realworld friction drum.