Download Estimating the plucking point on a guitar string
This paper presents a frequency-domain technique for estimating the plucking point on a guitar string from an acoustically recorded signal. It also includes an original method for detecting the fingering point, based on the plucking point information.
Download A multirate, finite-width, bow-string interaction model
In this paper we propose an efficient method to model the amount of bow hair in contact with the string in a physical model of a bowed string instrument.
Download Modeling high-frequency modes of complex resonators using a waveguide mesh
This paper describes the use of a digital waveguide mesh which provides certain desirable components of the frequency response of the body of an instrument. An application for the violin is illustrated, showing that meshes can be designed to have a modal distribution which is psychoacoustically equivalent to the resonances of the violin body at high frequencies.
Download Doppler Simulation and the Leslie
An efficient algorithm for simulating the Doppler effect using interpolating and de-interpolating delay lines is described. The Doppler simulator is used to simulate a rotating horn to achieve the Leslie effect. Measurements of a horn from a real Leslie are used to calibrate angle-dependent digital filters which simulate the changing, angle-dependent, frequency response of the rotating horn.
Download Modeling Bowl Resonators Using Circular Waveguide Networks
We propose efficient implementations of a glass harmonica and a Tibetan bowl using circular digital waveguide networks. Circular networks provide a physically meaningful representation of bowl resonators. Just like the real instruments, both models can be either struck or rubbed using a hard mallet, a violin bow, or a wet finger.
Download The Sounds of the Avian Syrinx - are they Really Flute-Like?
This research presents a model of the avian vocal tract, implemented using classical waveguide synthesis and numerical methods. The vocal organ of the songbird, the syrinx, has a unique topography of acoustic tubes (a trachea with a bifurcation at its base) making it a rather unique subject for waveguide synthesis. In the upper region of the two bifid bronchi lies a nonlinear vibrating membrane – the primary resonator in sound production. Unlike most reed musical instruments, the more significant displacement of the membrane is perpendicular to the directions of airflow, due to the Bernoulli effect. The model of the membrane displacement, and the resulting pressure through the constriction created by the membrane motion, is therefore derived beginning with the Bernoulli equation.
Download A simple, accurate wall loss filter for acoustic tubes
This research presents a uniform approximation to the formulas of Benade and Keefe for the propagation constant of a cylindrical tube, valid for all tube radii and frequencies in the audio range. Based on this approximation, a simple expression is presented for a filter which closely matches the thermoviscous loss filter of a tube of specified length and radius at a given sampling rate. The form of this filter and the simplicity of coefficient calculation make it particularly suitable for real-time music applications where it may be desirable to have tube parameters such as length and radius vary during performance.
Download The Feathered Clarinet Reed
In this research, a method previously In this research, a method previouslyapplied appliedtotoimprove improve a digital simulation of the avian syrinx is adapted to the geometry of the clarinet reed. The clarinet model is studied with particular attention to the case when the reed beats again the lay of the mouthpiece, closing off air flow to the bore once each period. In place of the standard reed table which gives steady-state volume flow as a function of constant pressure difference across the reed, a more realistic dynamic volume flow model is proposed. The differential equation governing volume flow dynamics is seen to have a singularity at the point of reed closure, where both the volume flow and reed channel area become zero. The feathered clarinet reed refers to the method, first used in the syrinx, to smooth or feather the volume flow cutoff in a closing valve. The feathered valve eliminates the singularity and reduces artifacts in the simulated clarinet output.
Download Bayesian Identification of Closely-Spaced Chords from Single-Frame STFT Peaks
Identifying chords and related musical attributes from digital audio has proven a long-standing problem spanning many decades of research. A robust identification may facilitate automatic transcription, semantic indexing, polyphonic source separation and other emerging applications. To this end, we develop a Bayesian inference engine operating on single-frame STFT peaks. Peak likelihoods conditional on pitch component information are evaluated by an MCMC approach accounting for overlapping harmonics as well as undetected/spurious peaks, thus facilitating operation in noisy environments at very low computational cost. Our inference engine evaluates posterior probabilities of musical attributes such as root, chroma (including inversion), octave and tuning, given STFT peak frequency and amplitude observations. The resultant posteriors become highly concentrated around the correct attributes, as demonstrated using 227 ms piano recordings with −10 dB additive white Gaussian noise.
Download Discretization of the '59 Fender Bassman Tone Stack
The market for digital modeling guitar amplifiers requires that the digital models behave like the physical prototypes. A component of the iconic Fender Bassman guitar amplifier, the tone stack circuit, filters the sound of the electric guitar in a unique and complex way. The controls are not orthogonal, resulting in complicated filter coefficient trajectories as the controls are varied. Because of its electrical simplicity, the tone stack is analyzed symbolically in this work, and digital filter coefficients are derived in closed form. Adhering to the technique of virtual analog, this procedure results in a filter that responds to user controls in exactly the same way as the analog prototype. The general expressions for the continuous-time and discrete-time filter coefficients are given, and the frequency responses are compared for the component values of the Fender ’59 Bassman. These expressions are useful implementation and verification of implementations such as the wave digital filter.