Download Using the waveguide mesh in modelling 3D resonators
Most of the results found by several researchers, during these years, in physical modelling of two dimensional (2D) resonators by means of waveguide meshes, extend without too much difficulty to the three dimensional (3D) case. Important parameters such as the dispersion error, the spatial bandwidth, and the sampling efficiency, which characterize the behavior and the performance of a waveguide mesh, can be reformulated in the 3D case, giving the possibility to design mesh geometries supported by a consistent theory. A comparison between different geometries can be carried out in a theoretical context. Here, we emphasize the use of the waveguide meshes as efficient tools for the analysis of resonances in 3D resonators of various shapes. For this purpose, several mesh geometries have been implemented into an application running on a PC, provided with a graphical interface that allows an easy input of the parameters and a simple observation of the consequent system evolution and the output data. This application is especially expected to give information on the modes resonating in generic 3D shapes, where a theoretical prediction of the modal frequencies is hard to do.
Download Magnitude-Complementary Filters For Dynamic Equalization
Discrete-time structures of first-order and second-order equalization filters are proposed. They turn to be particularly useful in applications where the equalization parameters are dynamically varied, such as in contexts of audio virtual reality. In fact, their design allows a simplified and more direct control of the filter coefficients, at the cost of some more computation cycles that are required, during each time step, by implementations on real-time processing devices.
Download Recognition Of Ellipsoids From Acoustic Cues
Ideal three-dimensional resonators are “labeled” (identified) by infinite sequences of resonance modes, whose distribution depends on the resonator shape. We are investigating the ability of human beings to recognize these shapes by auditory spectral cues. Rather than focusing on a precise simulation of the resonator, we want to understand if the recognition takes place using simplified “cartoon” models, just providing the first resonances that identify a shape. In fact, such models can be easily translated into efficient algorithms for real-time sound synthesis in contexts of human-machine interaction, where the resonator shape and other rendering parameters can be interactively manipulated. This paper describes the method we have followed to come up with an application that, executed in real-time, can be used in listening tests of shape recognition and together with human-computer interfaces.
Download Recognition of Distance Cues from a Virtual Spatialization Model
Emerging issues in the auditory display aim at increasing the usability of interfaces. In this paper we present a virtual resonating environment, which synthesizes distance cues by means of reverberation. We realize a model that recreates the acoustics inside a tube, applying a numerical scheme called Waveguide Mesh, and we present the psychophysical experiments we have conducted for validating the information about distance conveyed by the virtual environment.
Download Computation of Nonlinear Filter Networks Containing Delay-Free Paths
A method for solving filter networks made of linear and nonlinear filters is presented. The method is valid independently of the presence of delay-free paths in the network, provided that the nonlinearities in the system respect certain (weak) hypotheses verified by a wide class of real components: in particular, that the contribution to the output due to the memory of the nonlinear blocks can be extracted from each nonlinearity separately. The method translates into a general procedure for computing the filter network, hence it can serve as a testbed for offline testing of complex audio systems and as a starting point toward further code optimizations aimed at achieving real time.
Download Exact Discrete-Time Realization of a Dolby B Encoding/Decoding Architecture
An algebraic technique which computes nonlinear, delay-free digital filter networks is applied to model the Dolby B in the discretetime. The model preserves the topology of the analog system, and imports the characteristics of the nonlinear processing blocks which are responsible of the peculiar functioning of Dolby B. The resulting numerical system exhibits qualitatively similar dynamic behavior and performance – full compliance with the Dolby B specifications would be achieved by deriving, from comprehensive data sheets of the system, accurate discrete-time models of the analog processing blocks. Results demonstrate that the computation converges if proper iterative methods are employed.
Download A nonlinear digital model of the EMS VCS3 voltage-controlled filter
This article presents a nonlinear discrete-time model of the EMS VCS3 voltage-controlled filters. The development of the model is based on the study of the filter circuitry and its behavior in the time domain. From this circuitry a system of nonlinear differential equations has been derived describing the dynamics in regime of large signals. The digital implementation of the filter is based on a numerical approximation of those equations. The resulting Matlab model has been compared with a structurally identical simulation running under PSpice. Finally, a real-time realization of the VCF has been implemented under the Pure Data processing environment.
Download Efficient Polynomial Implementation of the EMS VCS3 Filter Model
A previously existing nonlinear differential equation system modeling the EMS VCS3 voltage controlled filter is reformulated here in polynomial form, avoiding the expensive computation of transcendent functions imposed by the original model. The new system is discretized by means of an implicit numerical scheme, and solved using Newton-Raphson iterations. While maintaining instantaneous controllability, the algorithm is both significantly faster and more accurate than the previous filter-based solution. A real time version of the model has been implemented under the PureData audio processing environment and as a VST plugin.
Download BIVIB: A Multimodal Piano Sample Library Of Binaural Sounds And Keyboard Vibrations
An extensive piano sample library consisting of binaural sounds and keyboard vibration signals is made available through an openaccess data repository. Samples were acquired with high-quality audio and vibration measurement equipment on two Yamaha Disklavier pianos (one grand and one upright model) by means of computer-controlled playback of each key at ten different MIDI velocity values. The nominal specifications of the equipment used in the acquisition chain are reported in a companion document, allowing researchers to calculate physical quantities (e.g., acoustic pressure, vibration acceleration) from the recordings. Also, project files are provided for straightforward playback in a free software sampler available for Windows and Mac OS systems. The library is especially suited for acoustic and vibration research on the piano, as well as for research on multimodal interaction with musical instruments.
Download Keytar: Melodic control of multisensory feedback from virtual strings
A multisensory virtual environment has been designed, aiming at recreating a realistic interaction with a set of vibrating strings. Haptic, auditory and visual cues progressively istantiate the environment: force and tactile feedback are provided by a robotic arm reporting for string reaction, string surface properties, and furthermore defining the physical touchpoint in form of a virtual plectrum embodied by the arm stylus. Auditory feedback is instantaneously synthesized as a result of the contacts of this plectrum against the strings, reproducing guitar sounds. A simple visual scenario contextualizes the plectrum in action along with the vibrating strings. Notes and chords are selected using a keyboard controller, in ways that one hand is engaged in the creation of a melody while the other hand plucks virtual strings. Such components have been integrated within the Unity3D simulation environment for game development, and run altogether on a PC. As also declared by a group of users testing a monophonic Keytar prototype with no keyboard control, the most significant contribution to the realism of the strings is given by the haptic feedback, in particular by the textural nuances that the robotic arm synthesizes while reproducing physical attributes of a metal surface. Their opinion, hence, argues in favor of the importance of factors others than auditory feedback for the design of new musical interfaces.