Download Binaural source localization
In binaural signals, interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) are two of the most important cues for the estimation of source azimuths, i.e. the localization of sources in the horizontal plane. For narrow band signals, according to the duplex theory, ITD is dominant at low frequencies and ILD is dominant at higher frequencies. Based on the STFT spectra of binaural signals, a method is proposed for the combined evaluation of ITD and ILD for each individual spectral coefficient. ITD and ILD are related to the azimuth through lookup models. Azimuth estimates based on ITD are more accurate but ambiguous at higher frequencies due to phase wrapping. The less accurate but unambiguous azimuth estimates based on ILDs are used in order to select the closest candidate azimuth estimates based on ITDs, effectively improving the azimuth estimation. The method corresponds well with the duplex theory and also handles the transition from low to high frequencies gracefully. The relations between the ITD and ILD and the azimuth are computed from a measured set of head related transfer functions (HRTFs), yielding azimuth lookup models. Based on a study of these models for different subjects, parametric azimuth lookup models are proposed. The parameters of these models can be optimized for an individual subject whose HRTFs have been measured. In addition, subject independent lookup models are proposed, parametrized only by the distance between the ears, effectively enabling source localization for subjects whose HRTFs have not been measured.
Download Event Synchronous Wavelet Transform Approach to the Extraction of Musical Music Thumbnails
Fast browsing of digital collections of music would largely benefit from the availability of representative audio excerpts of the pieces. Similar to their visual counterparts found in digital photo albums, music thumbnails should offer a comprehensive listening experience while requiring a limited storage space or communication data rate. The approach to the generation of musical thumbnails of music proposed in this paper is based on an application of the PitchSynchronous Wavelet Transform, where the “pitch” is tuned to the elementary measure of the piece. The music thumbnail is encoded by the low rate coefficient sequence pertaining to the scaling residue of the transform. The scaling component represents the pseudo-periodic trend of the piece over several measures. Due to pseudo-periodicity, the time duration of the thumbnail can be arbitrarily extended in listening with no audible artifacts.
Download Fractal Modulation Effects
Fractal modulation is obtained by forming a power weighted superposition of scaled and modulated versions of the signal. The resulting signal is self-similar with fractal characteristics. In this paper we explore fractal modulation as a powerful method to generate rich signals, useful both for the synthesis of complex sounds, like the sounds from natural events or ecological sounds, or as control functions of audio effects. The wavelet transform can be used as an efficient tool in order to generate a subset of fractal modulated signals that are power homogeneous. Any signal used as a seed for fractal modulation is transformed into a multiscale sound by means of a tree-structured multirate filter bank. Moreover, by superimposing a structured modulation scheme one can generate pseudo-periodic sounds whose partials have fractal behavior.
Download Real-Time and Efficient Algorithms for Frequency Warping Based on Local Approximations of Warping Operators
Frequency warping is a modifier that acts on sound signals by remapping the frequency axis. Thus, the spectral content of the original sound is displaced to other frequencies. At the same time, the phase relationship among the signal components is altered, nonlinearly with respect to frequency. While this effect is interesting and has several applications, including in the synthesis by physical models, its use has been so far limited by the lack of an accurate and flexible real-time algorithm. In this paper we present methods for frequency warping that are based on local approximations of the warping operators and allow for real-time implementation. Filter bank structures are derived that allow for efficient realization of the approximate technique. An analysis of the error is also presented, which shows that both numerical and perceptual errors are within acceptable limits. Furthermore, the approximate implementation allows for a larger variety of warping maps than that achieved by the classical (non-causal) first-order allpass cascade implementation.
Download Binaural partial tracking
Partial tracking in sinusoidal models have been studied for over twenty years now, and have been enhanced, making it precise and useful to analyse noiseless harmonic sounds. However, such tools have always been used in a monophonic (single channel) context. A method is thus proposed to adapt the partial tracking to the case of binaural signals. This gives a tool to perform spectral analysis of such signals, keeping relevant information from both left and right channels. Moreover, azimuth (position in the horizontal plane) information for each partial is gained using interaural cues, such as interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs). The azimuth information can then be used as an attribute or as a constraint in the binaural partial tracking algorithm. Finally, some classification results using the azimuth of partials are presented.
Download The PluckSynth touch string
In this paper the problem of the synthesis of plucked strings by means of physically inspired models is reconsidered in the context of the player’s interaction with the virtual instrument. While solutions for the synthesis of guitar tones have been proposed, which are excellent from the acoustic point of view, the problem of the control of the physical parameters directly by the player has not received sufficient attention. In this paper we revive a simple model previously presented by Cuzzucoli and Lombardo for the player’s touch. We show that the model is affected by an inconsistency that can be removed by introducing the finger/pick perturbation in a balanced form on the digital waveguide. The results, together with a more comprehensive model of the guitar have been implemented in a VST plugin, which is the starting point for further research.
Download Simplified Guitar Bridge Model for the Displacement Wave Representation in Digital Waveguides
In this paper, we present a simplified model for the string-bridge interaction in guitars or other string instruments simulated by digital waveguides. The bridge model is devised for the displacement wave representation in order to be integrated with other models for string interactions with the player and with other parts of the instrument, whose simulation and implementation is easier in this representation. The model is based on a multiplierless scattering matrix representing the string-bridge interaction. Although not completely physically inspired, we show that this junction is sufficiently general to accommodate a variety of transfer functions under the sole requirement of passivity and avoids integration constants mismatch when the bridge is in turn modeled by a digital waveguide. The model is completed with simple methods to introduce horizontal and vertical polarizations of the string displacement and sympathetic vibrations of other strings. The aim of this paper is not to provide the most general methods for sound synthesis of guitar but, rather, to point at low computational cost and scalable solutions suitable for real-time implementations where the synthesizer is running together with several other audio applications.
Download Structurally Passive Scattering Element for Modelling Guitar Pluck Action
In this paper we propose new models for the plucking interaction of the player with the string for use with digital waveguide simulation of guitar. Unlike the previously presented models, the new models are based on structurally passive scattering junctions, which have the main advantage of being properly scaled for use in fixed-point waveguide implementations and of guaranteeing stability independently of the plucking excitation. In a first model we start from the Cuzzucoli-Lombardo equations [1], within the Evangelista-Eckerholm [2] propagation formulation, in order to derive the passive scattering junction by means of bilinear transformation. In a second model we start from equations properly modeling the finger compliance by means of a spring. In a third model we formalize the interaction in terms of driving impedances. The model is also extended using nonlinear (feathering) compliance models.
Download Physical Model of the String-Fret Interaction
In this paper, a model for the interaction of the strings with the frets in a guitar or other fretted string instruments is introduced. In the two-polarization representation of the string oscillations it is observed that the string interacts with the fret in different ways. While the vertical oscillation is governed by perfect or imperfect clamping of the string on the fret, the horizontal oscillation is subject to friction of the string over the surface of the fret. The proposed model allows, in particular, for the accurate evaluation of the elongation of the string in the two modes, which gives rise to audible dynamic detuning. The realization of this model into a structurally passive system for use in digital waveguide synthesis is detailed. By changing the friction parameters, the model can be employed in fretless instruments too, where the string directly interacts with the neck surface.
Download Approximations for Online Computation of Redressed Frequency Warped Vocoders
In recent work, the construction of non-uniform generalized Gabor frames for the time-frequency analysis of signals has been introduced. In particular, while preserving perfect reconstruction, these frames allow for tilings of the time-frequency plane with arbitrary allocation of partially overlapping frequency bands or time intervals. In a recent paper, the author demonstrated that the construction of such frames can be entirely based on warping operators, which are specified by the required frequency or time warping maps, which, in turn, interpolate the desired frequency or time intervals edges. However, while the online computation of Gabor expansions on non-uniform time intervals presents little or no problem, the computation of Gabor expansions on non-uniform frequency bands requires knowledge of the Fourier transform of the entire signal, which precludes online computation. In this paper we introduce approximations and ideas for the design of nearly perfect reconstruction analysis and synthesis atoms, which allow for the online computation of time-frequency representations on non-uniform frequency bands.