Download Generative timbre spaces: regularizing variational auto-encoders with perceptual metrics
Timbre spaces have been used in music perception to study the perceptual relationships between instruments based on dissimilarity ratings. However, these spaces do not generalize to novel examples and do not provide an invertible mapping, preventing audio synthesis. In parallel, generative models have aimed to provide methods for synthesizing novel timbres. However, these systems do not provide an understanding of their inner workings and are usually not related to any perceptually relevant information. Here, we show that Variational Auto-Encoders (VAE) can alleviate all of these limitations by constructing generative timbre spaces. To do so, we adapt VAEs to learn an audio latent space, while using perceptual ratings from timbre studies to regularize the organization of this space. The resulting space allows us to analyze novel instruments, while being able to synthesize audio from any point of this space. We introduce a specific regularization allowing to enforce any given similarity distances onto these spaces. We show that the resulting space provide almost similar distance relationships as timbre spaces. We evaluate several spectral transforms and show that the Non-Stationary Gabor Transform (NSGT) provides the highest correlation to timbre spaces and the best quality of synthesis. Furthermore, we show that these spaces can generalize to novel instruments and can generate any path between instruments to understand their timbre relationships. As these spaces are continuous, we study how audio descriptors behave along the latent dimensions. We show that even though descriptors have an overall non-linear topology, they follow a locally smooth evolution. Based on this, we introduce a method for descriptor-based synthesis and show that we can control the descriptors of an instrument while keeping its timbre structure.
Download Universal Audio Synthesizer Control with Normalizing Flows
The ubiquity of sound synthesizers have reshaped music production and even entirely define new music genres. However, the increasing complexity and number of parameters in modern synthesizers make them harder to master. Hence, the development of methods allowing to easily create and explore with synthesizers is a crucial need. Here, we introduce a radically novel formulation of audio synthesizer control by formalizing it as finding an organized continuous latent space of audio that represents the capabilities of a synthesizer and map this space to the space of synthesis parameter. By using this formulation, we show that we can address simultaneously automatic parameter inference, macro-control learning and audio-based preset exploration within a single model. To solve this new formulation, we rely on Variational Auto-Encoders (VAE) and Normalizing Flows (NF) to organize and map the respective auditory and parameter spaces. We introduce a new type of NF named regression flows that allow to perform an invertible mapping between separate latent spaces, while steering the organization of some of the latent dimensions. We evaluate our proposal against a large set of baseline models and show its superiority in both parameter inference and audio reconstruction. We also show that the model disentangles the major factors of audio variations as latent dimensions, that can be directly used as macro-parameters. Finally, we discuss the use of our model in several creative applications and introduce real-time implementations in Ableton Live
Download Cross-Modal Variational Inference for Bijective Signal-Symbol Translation
Extraction of symbolic information from signals is an active field of research enabling numerous applications especially in the Musical Information Retrieval domain. This complex task, that is also related to other topics such as pitch extraction or instrument recognition, is a demanding subject that gave birth to numerous approaches, mostly based on advanced signal processing-based algorithms. However, these techniques are often non-generic, allowing the extraction of definite physical properties of the signal (pitch, octave), but not allowing arbitrary vocabularies or more general annotations. On top of that, these techniques are one-sided, meaning that they can extract symbolic data from an audio signal, but cannot perform the reverse process and make symbol-to-signal generation. In this paper, we propose an bijective approach for signal/symbol translation by turning this problem into a density estimation task over signal and symbolic domains, considered both as related random variables. We estimate this joint distribution with two different variational auto-encoders, one for each domain, whose inner representations are forced to match with an additive constraint, allowing both models to learn and generate separately while allowing signal-to-symbol and symbol-to-signal inference. In this article, we test our models on pitch, octave and dynamics symbols, which comprise a fundamental step towards music transcription and label-constrained audio generation. In addition to its versatility, this system is rather light during training and generation while allowing several interesting creative uses that we outline at the end of the article.
Download Diet Deep Generative Audio Models With Structured Lottery
Deep learning models have provided extremely successful solutions in most audio application fields. However, the high accuracy
of these models comes at the expense of a tremendous computation cost. This aspect is almost always overlooked in evaluating the
quality of proposed models. However, models should not be evaluated without taking into account their complexity. This aspect
is especially critical in audio applications, which heavily relies on
specialized embedded hardware with real-time constraints.
In this paper, we build on recent observations that deep models are highly overparameterized, by studying the lottery ticket hypothesis on deep generative audio models. This hypothesis states
that extremely efficient small sub-networks exist in deep models
and would provide higher accuracy than larger models if trained in
isolation. However, lottery tickets are found by relying on unstructured masking, which means that resulting models do not provide
any gain in either disk size or inference time. Instead, we develop
here a method aimed at performing structured trimming. We show
that this requires to rely on global selection and introduce a specific criterion based on mutual information.
First, we confirm the surprising result that smaller models provide higher accuracy than their large counterparts. We further
show that we can remove up to 95% of the model weights without significant degradation in accuracy. Hence, we can obtain very
light models for generative audio across popular methods such as
Wavenet, SING or DDSP, that are up to 100 times smaller with
commensurate accuracy. We study the theoretical bounds for embedding these models on Raspberry Pi and Arduino, and show that
we can obtain generative models on CPU with equivalent quality
as large GPU models. Finally, we discuss the possibility of implementing deep generative audio models on embedded platforms.