Download Model-based synthesis and transformation of voiced sounds
In this work a glottal model loosely based on the Ishizaka and Flanagan model is proposed, where the number of parameters is drastically reduced. First, the glottal excitation waveform is estimated, together with the vocal tract filter parameters, using inverse filtering techniques. Then the estimated waveform is used in order to identify the nonlinear glottal model, represented by a closedloop configuration of two blocks: a second order resonant filter, tuned with respect to the signal pitch, and a regressor-based functional, whose coefficients are estimated via nonlinear identification techniques. The results show that an accurate identification of real data can be achieved with less than regressors of the nonlinear functional, and that an intuitive control of fundamental features, such as pitch and intensity, is allowed by acting on the physically informed parameters of the model. 10
Download Computer Synthesis Of Bird Songs And Calls
Bird songs are fascinating acoustic phenomena. In this paper, we first examine the acoustic mechanisms of sound production in birds and contrast them with their anatomy. Next, we describe the simulation of a one-mass source together with a simple transmission line model for a psittacine bird. In concluding, we discuss future areas for research.
Download Modeling Collision Sounds: Non-Linear Contact Force
A model for physically based synthesis of collision sounds is proposed. Attention is focused on the non-linear contact force, for which both analytical and experimental results are presented. Numerical implementation of the model is discussed, with regard to accuracy and efficiency issues. As an application, a physically based audio effect is presented.
Download Modeling Interactions between Rubbed Dry Surfaces Using an Elasto-Plastic Friction Model
A physically based model of the frictional interaction between dry surfaces is presented. The paper reviews a number of static and dynamic friction models, and discusses numerical techniques for the accurate and efficient numerical implementation of a dynamic elasto-plastic model. An application to the bowed string is provided, and the resulting simulations are compared to recent results from the literature.
Download Computation of Nonlinear Filter Networks Containing Delay-Free Paths
A method for solving filter networks made of linear and nonlinear filters is presented. The method is valid independently of the presence of delay-free paths in the network, provided that the nonlinearities in the system respect certain (weak) hypotheses verified by a wide class of real components: in particular, that the contribution to the output due to the memory of the nonlinear blocks can be extracted from each nonlinearity separately. The method translates into a general procedure for computing the filter network, hence it can serve as a testbed for offline testing of complex audio systems and as a starting point toward further code optimizations aimed at achieving real time.
Download Exact Discrete-Time Realization of a Dolby B Encoding/Decoding Architecture
An algebraic technique which computes nonlinear, delay-free digital filter networks is applied to model the Dolby B in the discretetime. The model preserves the topology of the analog system, and imports the characteristics of the nonlinear processing blocks which are responsible of the peculiar functioning of Dolby B. The resulting numerical system exhibits qualitatively similar dynamic behavior and performance – full compliance with the Dolby B specifications would be achieved by deriving, from comprehensive data sheets of the system, accurate discrete-time models of the analog processing blocks. Results demonstrate that the computation converges if proper iterative methods are employed.
Download Energy and Accuracy Issues in Numerical Simulations of a Non-linear Impact model
A physically-based impact model – already known and exploited in the field of sound synthesis – is studied using both analytical tools and numerical simulations. It is shown that, for some regions of the parameter space, the trajectories of discretized systems may drift from analytically-derived curves. Some methods, based on enforcing numerical energy consistency, are suggested to improve the accuracy and stability of discrete-time systems.
Download Physically-based synthesis of nonlinear circular membranes
This paper investigates the properties of a recently proposed physical model of nonlinear tension modulation effects in a struck circular membrane. The model simulates dynamic variations of tension (and consequently of partial frequencies) due to membrane stretching during oscillation, and is based on a more general theory of geometric nonlinearities in elastic plates. The ability of the nonlinear membrane model to simulate real-world acoustic phenomena is assessed here through resynthesis of recorded membrane (rototom) sounds. The effects of air loading and tension modulation in the recorded sounds are analyzed, and model parameters for resynthesis are consequently estimated. The example reported in the paper show that the model is able to accurately simulate the analyzed rototom sounds.
Download A spectral subtraction rule for real‐time DSP implementation of noise reduction in speech signals
Spectral subtraction is a method for restoration of the spectrum magnitude for signals observed in additive noise, through subtraction of an estimate of the average noise spectrum from the noisy signal spectrum. In this paper we show that, starting from the known minimum mean-square error (MMSE) suppression rules of Ephraim and Malah and under the same modeling assumptions, a simpler suppression filtering rule can be found. Moreover, we demonstrate its performances and compare its computational costs with respect to the reference rule of Ephraim and Malah. This result permits a real time implementation of the exposed theory with an efficient algorithm on the DSP TMS320 C6713B.
Download Energy Based Synthesis of Tension Modulation in Membranes
Above a certain amplitude, membrane vibration becomes nonlinear due to the variation of surface tension. This leads to audible pitch glides, which greatly contribute to the characteristic timbre of tom-tom drums of the classical drum set and many other percussion instruments. Therefore, there is a strong motivation to take the tension modulation effect into account in drum synthesis. Some models do already exist that model this phenomenon, however, their computational complexity is significantly higher compared to linear membrane models. This paper applies an efficient methodology previously developed for the string to model the quasistatic part (short-time average) of the surface tension. The efficient modeling is based on the linear relationship between the quasistatic tension and membrane energy, since the energy can be computed at a relatively low computational cost. When this energy-based tension modulation is added to linear membrane models, the perceptually most relevant pitch glides are accurately synthesized, while the increase in computational complexity is negligible.