Variable Pre-Emphasis LPC for Modeling Vocal Effort in the Singing Voice
In speech and singing, the spectral envelope of the glottal source varies according to different voice qualities such as vocal effort, lax voice, and breathy voice. In contrast, linear prediction coding (LPC) models the glottal source in a way that is not flexible. The spectral envelope of the source estimated by LPC is fixed and determined by the pre-emphasis filter. In standard LPC, the formant filter captures variation in the spectral envelope that should be associated with the source. This paper presents variable preemphasis LPC (VPLPC) as a technique to allow the estimated source to vary. This results in formant filters that remain more consistent across variations in vocal effort and breathiness. VPLPC also provides a way to change the envelope of the estimated source, thereby changing the perception of vocal effort. The VPLPC algorithm is used to manipulate some voice excerpts with promising but mixed results. Possible improvements are suggested.